Stem cells from adipose tissue

Stem cell technology: stem cells from adipose tissue

stem cells from adipose tissue
Adipose tissue is the most secure and easily accessible source of autologous (own) cells with multipotent properties (able to repair any tissue) and with high potential.

In the general there is wariness of researchers in some aspects of cell therapy, methods of study and the technology of stem cells from adipose tissue (HBC) are constantly improved. The results of long-term clinical trials in different countries confirms the prospects of HBC for many areas of regenerative medicine.

In today's cellular regenerative medicine technologies extend to the lead the position. Prospects of cell therapy for the treatment of many diseases attracted the attention of researchers and practitioners all over the world. Stem cells play the role of a tool with which you can restore damaged tissue and correct the dysfunction of organs.

As a source of cells can serve many tissues of the body, from bone marrow - to the tooth pulp and the hair follicle, and technology therapeutic cloning, induction of pluripotency or transdifferention of cells suggest the possibility of obtaining stem cells from the already specialized. Procedures for obtaining and application of stem cells are rather expensive, but still major limitations introduction modern methods of cell therapy is their safety, including to, first of all, the medical aspect, as well as ethical and legal components.

For this reason, among a wide variety of types of stem cells that offered to the clinic, in recent years  the most interesting become stem cells from adipose tissue.

  • First, uses only its own tissues and cells, so there is no risk of infection transmisive diseases.
  • Second, fully compatible with its own cells by chromosome and gene structure, and hence will not be allergic or immune conflict.
  • Third, there is no risk of complications of cancer, because HBC mature enough for this, as opposed to embryonic SC, which often cause them.
  • Fourth, only a small amount of adipose tissue to release the necessary amount of IC. Therefore, after activation of SC can be entered directly back to the patient without the need for growing on  substance (embryonic SC are grown for several months).

ASC is well maintained with subsequent cultivation kriosaving without changing the phenotype and significantly reduce the potential for differentiation (the ability to transform into mature tissue organs).

On average, after 1 month of kriosaving survive 92% of the cells, after 6 months - 85%, and after a year - about 70%. ASC kriosaving allows the use of material taken from the patient in advance, for example, to radiation or chemotherapy.

The most important characteristic is their multipotent ASCs, allowing cells to differentiate themselves in the body in certain types of specialized cells (share in the damaged tissues and organs, restoring defects). This ability provides a high regenerative potential of ASC, proven on models of various pathological processes in animals and humans. 

The possibility of using own stem cells for the regeneration of other tissues of the body

In experimental studies on ASC (autologous stem cells) cultures of human and animal shows that in addition to the classical differentiation (become in cell bodies) in chondrocytes (cartilage cells) and osteoblasts (bone cells) are able to obtain many other types of specialized cells.

Promising is the use of ASC to restore the nervous tissue due to their neurogenic potential, more pronounced than that of SC bone the brain.

Experimental research and practice point to the possibility of ASC for treatment of injuries of the brain, spinal cord and neurodegenerative Diseases (Parkinsona, Altsgeymera, etc.).

Noteworthy is the possibility of differentiation of ASC gepatogennoy (conversion into liver cells). With intravenous injection of undifferentiated autologous stem cells decreased values of toxicity, increased production of the protein. Increasing the efficiency of colonization of damaged liver (fibrosis reduction and recovery values of the indicators of protein metabolism) was obtained at  introduction (into the portal vein of the liver) cells.

Another important development is the differentiation of ASC in cells producing insulin. With the introduction of ASC patients with diabetes, decreased glucose levels, increased her tolerance, decreased polyuria.

The possibility of differentiation of ASC in the major hematopoietic cells (blood cells), which may be a partial alternative to bone grafting when brain blood diseases.

Undifferentiated human ASC is also able to secrete coagulation factor VII. This method of stem cell therapy can be used in the treatment of hemophilia.

HBC can differentiate into renal tubular epithelium in the early stages of kidney damage. In experimental studies, intravenous or intra-arterial injection of ASC showed improvement in renal function in acute renal failure.

Thus, the encouraging results of studies of the regenerative potential allowed to substantiate the possibility of clinical applications new technologies using these cells. 

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